TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary
Methodology


1 O&M Market Overview, Sizing and Status
1.1 Wind energy market outlook
1.1.1 Global installed capacity
1.1.2 Leading markets in 2014
1.1.3 Worldwide future prospects
1.1.4 Towards 2020 and beyond to 2030
1.2 Major market players
1.2.1 Operators
1.2.2 Owners
1.2.3 Turbine manufacturers
1.3 Turbine size
1.4 O&M market
1.4.1 Wind farm O&M market size
1.4.2 Warranty status
1.4.3 O&M market trends


2 Evolution of costs and performance
2.1 Component capital costs
2.1.1 Turbine transaction costs
2.1.2 Turbines with gearbox
2.1.3 Direct drive turbines with Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG)
2.2 Cost of wind generated electricity
2.2.1 Historical LCOE trends
2.2.2 Other sources of electricity and grid parity
2.3 O&M costs
2.3.1 Historical trends
2.3.2 Initial warranty and post warranty periods
2.3.3 Cost breakdown comparison with other energy sources
2.3.4 Breakdown of cost factors
2.4 Performance – yield/availability
2.4.1 Historical availability trends
2.4.2 Market benchmarking
2.4.3 Actual contract warranties for availability
2.4.4 Operational performance
2.4.5 Capacity factor trends and comparison with other sources
2.4.6 Routes to improvement


3 Failure frequency and downtimes
3.1 Definitions and methodology
3.2 Failure rates at the sub-component level
3.3 The effect of turbine capacity
3.4 The effect of turbine technology
3.5 The effect of turbine age


4 Failure of major components: causes, modes and implications
4.1 Reasons for unavailability
4.2 Major component failure
4.2.1 Gearbox
Gearbox failure causes
Gearbox failure modes
Best practices
Buy new, repair or remanufacture?
Design improvements
4.2.2 Blades
Blade failure causes
Blade failure modes
Changing loads with increasing size
Serial defects
Best practices
4.2.3 Generator
Generator failure causes
Generator failure modes
Generator failure rates
Best practices


5 Failure of secondary components: causes, modes and implications
Chapter Summary
5.1 Failure modes and cost factors
5.1.1 Mechanical components
Drivetrain components
Yaw system
Mechanical brakes
Hydraulic systems
5.1.2 Electrical components
Pitch system
Power converter
Sensors
5.1.3 Other structural components
Tower and foundations
Bolted joints
Torque vs. Tension


6 Maintenance strategies
6.1 Reactive maintenance (corrective)
6.2 Preventive (time-based) maintenance
6.2.1 Critical inspections of major components
Gearbox and lubrication
Rotor blades
Generator
6.3 Predictive maintenance
6.3.1 Performance monitoring (non-intrusive condition monitoring)
SCADA data analysis
Performance monitoring
Power signal analysis
Electrical signature analysis
6.3.2 Condition-based maintenance
Vibration analysis
Remote oil debris monitoring
Strain measurements
Fiber optic measurements
Shock pulse method
Thermography
Temperature monitoring
Acoustic monitoring
Visual inspection
Ultrasonic testing
Radiographic inspection
6.3.3 Reliability-based maintenance (risk-based)
6.4 Benefits of CMS in a nutshell
6.4.1 Reduction of failure rate
Cost savings
6.4.2 Trend analysis
6.4.3 Improved documentation
Insurance premium
6.5 Improvement maintenance


7 Potential routes towards optimization
7.1 Industrial automation
7.2 Supply chain alignment
7.3 Modularization and standardization
7.4 Labor skills
7.5 Advanced asset management
7.5.1 Performance upgrades
7.5.2 Aerodynamic performance
7.5.3 Site parameters
7.5.4 Cost and risk considerations
7.6 Trends in R&D and technology
7.6.1 A fundamental question: Gearbox or no gearbox?
7.6.2 Wind specific designs
7.6.3 Integration and interaction of monitoring and control systems
Smart monitoring


8 Understanding the O&M services landscape
Chapter Summary
8.1 Evolution of the O&M landscape
8.1.1 O&M in other power industries
8.1.2 O&M in the onshore wind market
8.1.3 The future of wind O&M: condition-based monitoring and beyond
8.2 O&M services
8.2.1 OEMs and EOW full-service contracts
8.2.2 Independent service providers (third parties)
8.2.3 In-house O&M
8.2.4 Tapered (Hybrid)
8.3 Contracts and risks
8.3.1 Contract length
8.3.2 Scope of services
8.3.3 Allocation of costs and revenues
8.3.4 Allocation of risks


9 Owners/operators and the in-house option
9.1 Warranty period success strategy
9.1.1 OEM contract negotiation
9.1.2 Risk mitigation
9.1.3 OEM partnership
9.1.4 Active involvement
9.1.5 Managing end of warranty: inspections
9.2 O&M service decision-making in the post-warranty period
9.2.1 Decision parameters
9.2.2 Technical asset management
9.2.3 Benchmarking
9.2.4 Risk mitigation versus profitability optimization
9.2.5 Improving performance and availability
9.2.6 Cooperation with other owners/operators (data sharing)
9.3 In-house option
9.3.1 Activities and resources
9.3.2 Best practices
9.3.3 Supply chain management
9.3.4 Going hybrid


10 Turbine OEMs and the extended warranty option
Chapter Summary
10.1 OEM services based on the owner type
10.1.1 Utilities
10.1.2 IPPs
10.1.3 Medium investors
10.1.4 Co-op investors
10.1.5 Small investors
10.2 O&M human resource strategy
10.3 Manufacturing and supply chain/procurement options
10.4 EOW contractual guarantees
10.4.1 Gamesa’s flexible offering
10.4.2 GE’s production-based guarantees
10.4.3 Driving down loss production at Vestas
10.4.4 Siemens’ five-point service offering
10.4.5 Suzlon offers time-based and production-based guarantees
10.4.6 Enercon’s successful partner concept
10.5 O&M investment strategies
10.6 Evolving OEM strategies


11 Independent service providers and third parties
Chapter Summary
11.1 Main entry points
11.1.1 The value added by ISPs
11.1.2 The future of ISPs
11.1.3 Other third parties
11.2 Long-term O&M strategy
11.3 ISP service requirements by owner type
11.3.1 Utilities
11.3.2 IPPs
11.3.3 Medium investors
11.3.4 Co-op investors
11.3.5 Small investors
11.4 O&M human resource strategy
11.5 Manufacturing and supply chain/procurement options
11.6 O&M contracts options
11.7 O&M investment strategies and new opportunities


12 Insurers
Chapter Summary
12.1 Wind O&M insurance landscape
12.2 Risk categorization
12.3 O&M risk management
12.4 Risks associated with turbine technology
12.4.1 Legacy models
12.4.2 Up-rate models
12.4.3 New models
12.5 Other risk factors for insurers
12.5.1 Supply chain
12.5.2 Skilled labor
12.5.3 Gearbox vs direct-drive
12.5.4 Life extension
12.6 Changing risk environment
12.6.1 Market exposure
12.6.2 Changing capital sources
12.6.3 Lagging grid investment: curtailment

13 O&M Market Scorecards
13.1 O&M Services Options
13.1.1 OEMs and EOW Full-Service Contracts
13.1.2 Independent Service Providers
13.1.3 In-house O&M
13.1.4 Tapered (Hybrid)
13.2 Market Scorecard Methodologies
13.2.1 Market Readiness
Market Strength
Market Potential
Operational Risk
Ease of Doing Business
O&M Service Landscape
Weighting of O&M Market Readiness Scorecard factors
13.2.2 Service Market Strategy Suitability             
13.3 O&M Market Scorecards
13.3.1 North America
US
Mexico
13.3.2 South America
13.3.3 Northern Europe
UK
Denmark
Sweden
13.3.4 Western Europe
Germany
France 
13.3.5 Eastern Europe   
Poland
Turkey
Romania
13.3.6 Southern Europe
Spain
Italy
13.3.7 Asia-Pacific
China
India
Australia
13.3.8 Africa and Middle East
South Africa
13.4 O&M Service Market Summary


14 Asset Maintenance Strategy Scorecard
14.1 Maintenance Strategies
14.1.1 Reactive Maintenance (Corrective)
14.1.2 Preventive (Time-Based) Maintenance
14.1.3 Predictive Maintenance
Performance monitoring (non-intrusive condition monitoring)
Condition-based maintenance
Reliability-based maintenance (risk-based)
14.1.4 Improvement Maintenance
14.2 Maintenance Scorecard Methodology
14.2.1 Failure Scenarios
14.2.2 Model Parameters
Supply Chain Factors
CMS Factors
Additional Factors
14.3 Maintenance Strategy Scorecard
14.3.1 Reference Failure Scenario
14.3.2 High Gearbox Failure Scenario
14.3.3 High Blade Failure Scenario
14.3.4 High Generator Failure Scenario
14.4 Limitations and Future Work

15 Concluding remarks

Appendixes
Appendix A: Regional Outlook and O&M Status
Appendix B: Sciemus’ simulations on Onshore Wind Turbine Failure Rates. A Note on Methodology
Appendix C: O&M Market Readiness Weighted Factor Outputs
Appendix D: Example case composed of 105x2MW turbines
Appendix E: Optimum O&M Response Strategy Outputs for Different Scenarios
Abbreviations
Bibliography

LIST OF BOXES

BOX 1: Case Study - Lifetime costs for a 300MW onshore wind farm
BOX 2: Cost of inefficient turbine operation
BOX 3: Big data in the wind industry
BOX 4: Case Study – Secondary damage and escalating costs
BOX 5: Case Study – End-of-warranty inspections
BOX 6: Case Study – Close-up on Windar Photonics LIDAR cost/revenue
BOX 7: Case Study – Pitch fault types and associated turbine unavailability costs
BOX 8: Potential cost savings through bolt conversion
BOX 9: Case Study – How clearly defining scope of work impacts the repair budget
BOX 10: Drone inspection
BOX 11: Case Study – LIDAR measurements to correct yaw misalignment
BOX 12: Case Study – Vibration monitoring for the detection of severe blade misalignment
BOX 13: Case Study – Main bearing predictive risk-based maintenance
BOX 14: Case Study – An upgraded inverter for GE 1.5 S
BOX 15: Establishing predictive business capabilities
BOX 16: Separating operation and maintenance
BOX 17: Industrial internet and SCADA infrastructure virtualization
BOX 18: Case study – Cooperation with OEM and ISP and cross-transfer of gained knowledge
BOX 19: Case study – Spare part strategy and risk/cost management
BOX 20: Case study – Turbine performance improvement cooperating with the OEM
BOX 21: Case study – Benchmarking top-line performance by comparing wind farm availability
BOX 22: Increasing competition in the O&M market
BOX 23: Case study – A successful supply chain strategy
BOX 24: Case study – Hands-on cost saving
BOX 25: Repowering or life extension
BOX 26: OEMs planning to service other OEM products
BOX 27: Case study – A benchmarking tool for all size of projects: Greensolver Index
BOX 28: Intellectual property right risks for ISPs
BOX 29: Virtual power plants (VPP)

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Worldwide wind energy capacity
Figure 2: Global annual cumulative wind installed capacity
Figure 3: Top 10 cumulative capacity markets
Figure 4: Worldwide cumulative installed capacity breakdown
Figure 5: Top 10 new Installed capacity in 2014
Figure 6: New Policies Scenario and forecast cumulative installed capacity by region
Figure 7: Top 15 operator around the world by installed capacity
Figure 8: Top 15 owners around the world by installed capacity
Figure 9: Largest volumes of publically-announced onshore turbine contracts (January-July 2014)
Figure 10: Top 10 turbine manufacturers
Figure 11: Evolution of wind turbine capacity and size in Germany
Figure 12: Evolution of installed capacity in US and average rated power, 2004-2014
Figure 13: China’s estimated cumulative off-warranty onshore wind capacity
Figure 14: Global growth of out-of-warranty O&M market
Figure 15: How often do you re-evaluate your turbine O&M strategy throughout the lifecycle of your asset?
Figure 16: What do you anticipate will be the contract cost variation in your key market in the next two years?
Figure 17: Reported wind turbine transaction prices over time
Figure 18: Very common high-speed modular, two-point mounted drivetrain (e.g. Vestas V80, Gamesa 2MW, GE 1.5 77)
Figure 19: Manufacturing cost share of components for a geared 2MW turbine
Figure 20: Manufacturing cost share of components for a 2MW PMG turbine
Figure 21: Very common high-speed modular, two-point mounted drivetrain (e.g. Vestas V80, Gamesa 2MW, GE 1.5 77)
Figure 22: LCOE of unsubsidized onshore wind
Figure 23: Unsubsidized LCOE comparison
Figure 24: LCOE for different generation technologies, 2009-2014
Figure 25: LCOE of utility-scale renewable technologies, 2010 and 2014
Figure 26: Distribution of wind farm operating costs
Figure 27: Average price for full-service O&M contracts
Figure 28: Average annual O&M costs, 1982-2013
Figure 29: What is the typical length of your O&M service contracts?
Figure 30: How would you most likely tailor an O&M strategy in the following scenarios?
Figure 31: Warranty/Post warranty O&M costs
Figure 32: Lifetime costs for a 300MW wind farm
Figure 33: LCOE cost breakdown for different energy sources
Figure 34: Total O&M cost breakdown
Figure 35: Current and projected fixed O&M costs
Figure 36: Current and projected variable O&M costs
Figure 37: Wind speeds and produced energy for an example Vestas turbine
Figure 38: Different availability definitions used in the industry
Figure 39: Time variation of wind farm technical availability
Figure 40: Impact of availability benchmarks on equity returns
Figure 41: Wind farm availability trend over time
Figure 42: What is the most common availability guarantee agreed within full service contracts?
Figure 43: Yearly real average capacity factors recorded in US, conventional vs. renewable resources
Figure 44: Capacity factors by project and weighted averages for commissioned and proposed wind farms, 2010-2014
Figure 45: Failure rates by sub-component for global turbine peer group
Figure 46: Lost days per year by sub-component for global turbine peer group
Figure 47: Failure rates by turbine capacity
Figure 48: Outage duration for different components, split by turbine capacities
Figure 49: Lost days per year by turbine capacity
Figure 50: Failure rates by turbine technology
Figure 51: Outage duration by turbine technology
Figure 52: Lost days per year by turbine technology
Figure 53: Failure rates by component
Figure 54: Average outage duration by component over a turbine’s lifetime
Figure 55: Lost days per year by component for global turbine peer group
Figure 56: Outages as a percentage of turbine operational availability
Figure 57: Based upon your wind assets what is currently the most common cause of unavailability?
Figure 58: A typical wind turbine gearbox
Figure 59: Failing components in wind turbine gearboxes
Figure 60: GE’s approach for keeping gearbox repairs up-tower
Figure 61: Estimated gearbox overhaul and lost revenue costs by nameplate capacity
Figure 62: Cost factors for a new, repaired and remanufactured gearbox
Figure 63: With respect of your portfolio, which 3 of the following components yield the most expensive O&M activities? (Ranked 1 to 3)
Figure 64: Setting up FusionDrive from Moventas
Figure 65: Major failure modes for wind turbine blades
Figure 66: Severity and incidence of common blade damage and wear
Figure 67: Warranty state of inspected blades
Figure 68: Blade defect type breakdown
Figure 69: Lifecycle of a healthy blade
Figure 70: Distribution of main causes of failure of generators or electrical engines
Figure 71: Generator magnetic wedge failure modes
Figure 72: Rotor banding failure due to overspeed conditions
Figure 73: Occurrence of generator failure modes
Figure 74: Position of main bearing at the rotor end of the drivetrain
Figure 75: Spherical roller main bearing for wind turbine
Figure 76: Example of a yaw system
Figure 77: Number of yaw system patents
Figure 78: Wrong yaw position in a wind farm
Figure 79: Yaw misalignment measurement on a Vestas V-82 turbine in India
Figure 80: Windar Photonics LIDAR
Figure 81: Mechanical brakes for a typical MW-class wind turbine
Figure 82: Braking system faults and their likelihood of detection by remote current analysis
Figure 83: Possible hydraulic applications in the nacelle
Figure 84: Causes of hydraulic fluid leakage
Figure 85: Auxiliary electrical equipment in the nacelle (in orange)
Figure 86: Pitch control faults at a 21x2MW turbine wind farm over a two-year period
Figure 87: Load control faults at a 21x2MW turbine wind farm over a two-year period
Figure 88: Source of stress distribution in power electronic systems
Figure 89: Common turbine condition monitoring sensors
Figure 90: Typical wind turbine bolt connections
Figure 91: Lost turbine due to foundation failure
Figure 92: Theoretical torque vs. actual torque on different bolts
Figure 93: Direct tension indicator
Figure 94: Tension monitoring bolt
Figure 95: Currently used maintenance strategies
Figure 96: Which O&M response approach do you tend to adopt in relation to a fleet of ageing wind turbines?
Figure 97: How would you best describe your approach towards O&M activities over the whole lifecycle of your assets?
Figure 98: Blade repair procedure
Figure 99: Using drones for wind turbine inspections
Figure 100: SCADA mechanism for failure analysis
Figure 101: SCADA prediction example: Gearbox bearing temperature
Figure 102: Turbine problems that can be detected early through SCADA analysis
Figure 103: Operational yaw error data before and after the correction
Figure 104: Relative benefits of monitoring approaches
Figure 105: Condition monitoring symptom and fault analysis and response process
Figure 106: Typical data sources leading to classic condition-based maintenance program
Figure 107: In general, do you tend to deploy condition monitoring systems (CMS) on your assets?
Figure 108: What kind of CMS do you typically deploy?
Figure 109: Possible application of CMSs
Figure 110: Potential vibration sensor locations on the drive train
Figure 111: Approximate costs for drivetrain O&M and installation of a vibration based CMS
Figure 112: Variation of wind speed including period of increased vibration alert
Figure 113: Pitch ram before and after corrective action
Figure 114: ECN’s fiber optic load monitoring sensor and sensor installed on an existing turbine
Figure 115: Infrared image of generator connections shows a problem with brushes
Figure 116: Potential failure – Functional failure (P-F) curve
Figure 117: Mobile scanning unit traversing a turbine blade
Figure 118: Costs associated with maintenance strategies
Figure 119: Main bearing replacement requires an expensive crane
Figure 120: Life expectancy for the main bearing considering micro-pitting damage
Figure 121: The strategic equation for reliability based maintenance
Figure 122: Failure detection and repair timeline
Figure 123: Damage development for corrective (left) - and CB maintenance (right)
Figure 124: A blown inverter from a GE 1.5MW S series turbine and an upgraded replacement inverter
Figure 125: Anticipated impact of all innovations by element
Figure 126: In-situ foam application concept and beltsander prototype for grinding and polishing
Figure 127: Levels of vertical integration in OEMs
Figure 128: Realizable saving potentials by product standardization
Figure 129: The key to modularity
Figure 130: Illustration by Vestas of more value propositions with lower complexity
Figure 131: Skills gap to 2030 (FTE)
Figure 132: Survey results for the ease of finding suitably trained staff in wind industry
Figure 133: Optimized management and operations
Figure 134: Improvements to the different regions of the power curve
Figure 135: Air flow elements: (left) Vortex generators, (right) trailing edge serrations
Figure 136: Optimized management and operations
Figure 137: Spinner-mounted ultrasonic sensor
Figure 138: Drivers and barriers for a typical wind turbine blade upgrade program
Figure 139: Rare earth metal prices compared with gold over a six-year period
Figure 140: SKF Bearing built for wind turbines
Figure 141: Which area is the O&M industry focusing on for 2015?
Figure 142: Business capabilities
Figure 143: Wind O&M market segments and typical service company
Figure 144: Condition monitoring is a key part of a successful O&M strategy, how could it be used more effectively?
Figure 145: Which O&M service strategy do you believe is the best fit in the post-warranty period?
Figure 146: SCADA infrastructure virtualization
Figure 147: What is the typical length of your O&M service contracts?
Figure 148: Cost factors as a result of a component failure
Figure 149: Owner strategy for success
Figure 150: The power curve for a turbine
Figure 151: Extended Bathtub Curve
Figure 152: O&M strength and weaknesses from a wind park owner perspective
Figure 153: How often do you re-evaluate your O&M service strategy throughout the lifecycle of your asset? Turbine O&M (left); BoP O&M (right)
Figure 154: Owner’s perspective - Insourcing of O&M and Asset Management activities
Figure 155: Benchmarking availability of a wind farm compared to the global peer group
Figure 156: What are you doing to take advantage of the increasing competition in the O&M market?
Figure 157: Different approaches to in-sourcing based on owner’s risk feeling
Figure 158: In-house operational excellence
Figure 159: Which of the following options best describes the service strategy you are currently most commonly deploying in relation to your portfolio?
Figure 160: An example of required activities and resources for post-warranty in-house O&M
Figure 161: Steps for an effective supply chain management
Figure 162: JUWI’s spare parts stock
Figure 163: Escalation management, levelled support
Figure 164: Problem solving procedure and cost structure
Figure 165: What is the collective operational capacity of your onshore wind energy portfolio in MW?
Figure 166: What percentage of your Onshore Wind portfolio remains within the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) warranty period?
Figure 167: Estimated turbine demand by nameplate capacity resulting from repowering
Figure 168: Which O&M response approach do you tend to adopt in relation to a fleet of ageing wind turbines?
Figure 169: What of the following statements applies to your O&M services?
Figure 170: Different availability definitions used in the industry
Figure 171: Gamesa’s O&M Service Proposition
Figure 172: Customer profitability pyramid
Figure 173: Site optimization roadmap (illustrative)
Figure 174: Vestas’ Loss Production Factor
Figure 175: Vestas’ O&M Strategy
Figure 176: Siemens Wind Power Service Programs
Figure 177: Which of the following O&M service strategies would you identify as currently representing your biggest competition?
Figure 178: O&M Responsibilities through the wind farm lifetime
Figure 179: Which of the following service strategies do you anticipate to dominate the O&M landscape in your key market over the next five years?
Figure 180: What do you anticipate will be the contract cost variation in your key market in the next two years?
Figure 181: When choosing an O&M strategy for you asset, what is the primary objective you are seeking?
Figure 182: Expenditure on risk management services in renewable energy (left) Low scenario, (right) High scenario
Figure 183: How would you most likely tailor an O&M strategy in the following scenarios (post-OEM warranty period)?
Figure 184: Siemens’ decentralized energy management system (DEMS)
Figure 185: A battery for storing wind energy is housed in a structure located at the base of the turbine
Figure 186: Wind power production and curtailment by province in China during 2013
Figure 187: Which area is the O&M industry focusing on for 2015?
Figure 188: Which O&M service strategy do you believe is the best fit in the post-warranty period?
Figure 189: ABEEólica’s cumulative wind capacity projections for Brazil
Figure 190: Wind energy job landscape in France across the value chain
Figure 191: O&M wind energy players in France and the territorial distribution of O&M wind jobs
Figure 192: OEM market share for wind farms in operation
Figure 193: OEM market share for wind farms under construction
Figure 194: Wind energy operator market share in Italy
Figure 195: Currently used maintenance strategies
Figure 196: Which O&M response approach do you tend to adopt in relation to a fleet of ageing wind turbines?
Figure 197: How would you best describe your approach towards O&M activities over the whole lifecycle of your assets?
Figure 198: Condition monitoring symptom and fault analysis and response process
Figure 199: In general, do you tend to deploy condition monitoring systems (CMS) on your assets?
Figure 200: What kind of CMS do you typically deploy?
Figure 201: Strategic equation for reliability-based maintenance
Figure 202: Maintenance scenario considerations
Figure 203: Maintenance strategy scorecard workflow
Figure 204: P-F curve
Figure 205: Probability versus component condition indicator
Figure 206: Reference scenario strategy comparison, 3MW turbine
Figure 207: Reference scenario strategy comparison, 2MW turbine
Figure 208: High gearbox failure scenario strategy comparison, 3MW turbine
Figure 209: High gearbox failure scenario strategy comparison, 2MW turbine
Figure 210: High blade failure scenario strategy comparison, 3MW turbine
Figure 211: High blade failure scenario strategy comparison, 2MW turbine
Figure 212: High generator failure scenario strategy comparison, 3MW turbine
Figure 213: High generator failure scenario strategy comparison, 2MW turbine
Figure 214: Production Tax Credit and US market activity
Figure 215: Brazil’s ABEEólica’s cumulative wind capacity projections

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Worldwide cumulative installed capacity breakdown
Table 2: Top 10 turbine manufacturers worldwide
Table 3: Scorecard Market-Specific Regions and Countries
Table 4: Representative geared wind turbine manufacturing costs
Table 5: Manufacturing costs of a wind turbine with blade pitch control and variable-speed permanent magnet generator
Table 6: Percentage change of levelized cost per MWh for selected renewable technologies
Table 7: Cost of onshore wind O&M from several sources
Table 8: Factors affecting wind farm availability
Table 9: Advantages and drawbacks of availability definitions
Table 10: Component categories and sub-components of wind turbines
Table 11: Classification of wind turbine technology
Table 12: US Wind farm operational metrics
Table 13: Cost of onshore wind O&M from several sources
Table 14: Wind energy asset and data sampling
Table 15: GE’s up-tower repair capability
Table 16: Up-tower repair cost estimations
Table 17: Repaired vs. remanufactured gearbox
Table 18: Most common causes of blade failure
Table 19: Blade failure types at a 67-turbine wind farm (over 14 years)
Table 20: Changing loading effects and dominant failure types with increased blade size
Table 21: Possible damage found on blade and recommended time for correction
Table 22: Effect of leading edge erosion on turbine output
Table 23: Up-tower vs. down-tower bearing repairs
Table 24: Defect analysis of a wind turbine’s supervisory and control system
Table 25: 100MW wind farm LIDAR profit estimation
Table 26: Scheduled and unscheduled downtime events
Table 27: Maintenance constraints
Table 28: Wind turbine gear lubrication oil condition and its significance
Table 29: Repair offers from various vendors
Table 30: Comparison of blade access methods
Table 31: Benefits of a drone inspection
Table 32: Pros and cons of different maintenance strategies
Table 33: Example wind farm characteristics
Table 34: Yaw misalignment measurements and estimated gain from correction
Table 35: Minimum number of sensors for certification
Table 36: Oil debris monitoring complements vibration analysis
Table 37: Oil analysis sensors on the market
Table 38: Anonymized costs of widely used and commercially available CM and SHM systems
Table 39: Turbine gearbox common inspection techniques
Table 40: The reliability challenge in the wind industry seen before, today and in the future
Table 41: Drive train condition monitoring cost simulation results
Table 42: SHM systems on blades, tower and foundation
Table 43: Power performance upgrades activities
Table 44: Benefits of fully-integrated CMS
Table 45: Advantages and disadvantages of OEM service contracts
Table 46: Advantages and disadvantages of ISP service contracts
Table 47: Current challenges and potential advantages through infrastructure virtualization
Table 48: Virtualized solution cost vs. OEM cost
Table 49: Advantages and disadvantages of in-house maintenance
Table 50: Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid strategies
Table 51: JUWI’s knowledge gain through hybrid maintenance strategies
Table 52: Wind O&M service contract scope
Table 53: Outcome of the risk/cost analysis for the given case
Table 54: Recommendations for OEM contract negotiation
Table 55: Risk factors and their management
Table 56: Risk management versus profitability optimization for post-warranty
Table 57: Schematic O&M cost savings potential through the hybridization of O&M
Table 58: OEMs are adopting new strategies
Table 59: Necessary characteristics of ISPs
Table 60: Risks associated with wind farms
Table 61: Common insurance policies against operational risks
Table 62: Advantages and disadvantages of OEM service contracts
Table 63: Advantages and disadvantages of ISP service contracts
Table 64: Advantages and disadvantages of in-house maintenance
Table 65: Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid strategies
Table 66: Industry Metric Classes Considered
Table 67: O&M Market Readiness Scorecard Factors and Classes
Table 68: Capacity Factor Ranking and Weighing
Table 69: O&M Market Readiness Scorecard Weights (From WEU Onshore O&M Survey 2015)
Table 70: O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard Factors and Classes
Table 71: O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard Stakeholder Relevance Matrix
Table 72: US’ O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
Table 73: US’ O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
Table 74: Canada’s O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
Table 75: Canada’s O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
Table 76: Mexico’s O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
Table 77: Mexico’s O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
Table 78: Brazil’s O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
Table 79: Brazil’s O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
Table 80: UK’s O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
Table 81: UK’s O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
Table 82: Denmark’s O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
Table 83: Denmark’s O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
Table 84: Sweden’s O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
Table 85: Sweden’s O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
Table 86: Germany’s O&M Market Scorecard
Table 87: Germany’s O&M Service Market Strategy Suitability Scorecard
Table 88: France’s O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
Table 89: France’s O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
Table 90: Poland’s O&M market readiness scorecard
Table 91: Poland’s O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
Table 92: Turkey’s O&M market readiness scorecard
Table 93: Turkey’s O&M market strategy scorecard
Table 94: Romania’s O&M Market Readiness Scorecard
Table 95: Romania’s O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
Table 96: Spain’s market readiness scorecard
Table 97: Spain’s O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
Table 98: Italy’s O&M market readiness scorecard
Table 99: Italy’s O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
Table 100: China’s O&M market readiness scorecard
Table 101: China’s O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
Table 102: India’s O&M market readiness scorecard
Table 103: India’s O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
Table 104: Australia’s O&M market readiness scorecard
Table 105: Australia’s O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
Table 106: South Africa’s O&M market readiness scorecard
Table 107: South Africa’s O&M service market strategy suitability scorecard
Table 108: O&M market scorecards result summary
Table 109: Pros and cons of different maintenance strategies
Table 110: 20 year failure rate inputs for all scenarios
Table 111: Periodic maintenance cost and frequency
Table 112: Component cost assumptions (USD)
Table 113: Component downtime per failure assumptions (days)
Table 114: Average labor cost per failure assumptions (USD)
Table 115: Major component crane assumptions
Table 116: Average crane cost per failure assumptions (USD)
Table 117: Lead time assumptions
Table 118: Transportation time assumptions
Table 119: CMS costs
Table 120: Total failure cost for all gearbox failures for a given population
Table 121: Gearbox CMS parameters for major failure modes
Table 122: Compound gearbox CMS parameters
Table 123: Major component CMS parameter assumptions
Table 124: Additional failure cost due to secondary damage
Table 125: Economies of scale for CMS
Table 126: Overall cost of generation of conventional fuel-based power vs. wind tariffs
Table 127: Farm parameters
Table 128: Periodic maintenance costs
Table 129: Component risk factors and failure scenario
Table 130: Supply chain factors
Table 131: Condition monitoring system (CMS) factors
Table 132: Major component lifetime O&M costs
Table 133: Scorecard output based on the lifetime cost comparison
Table 134: Normalized scorecard result
Table 135: Case 1 – 3MW turbines, 630MW wind farm
Table 136: Case 1 – 2MW turbines, 420MW wind farm
Table 137: Case 1 – 1MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
Table 138: Case 2 – 3MW turbines, 315MW wind farm
Table 139: Case 2 – 2MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
Table 140: Case 2 – 1MW turbines, 105MW wind farm
Table 141: Case 3 – 3MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
Table 142: Case 3 – 2MW turbines, 140MW wind farm
Table 143: Case 3 – 1MW turbines, 70MW wind farm
Table 144: Case 4 – 3MW turbines, 105MW wind farm
Table 145: Case 4 – 2MW turbines, 70MW wind farm
Table 146: Case 4 – 1MW turbines, 35MW wind farm
Table 147: Case 5 – 3MW turbines, 630MW wind farm
Table 148: Case 5 – 2MW turbines, 420MW wind farm
Table 149: Case 5 – 1MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
Table 150: Case 6 – 3MW turbines, 315MW wind farm
Table 151: Case 6 – 2MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
Table 152: Case 6 – 1MW turbines, 105MW wind farm
Table 153: Case 7 – 3MW turbines, 210MW wind farm
Table 154: Case 7 – 2MW turbines, 140MW wind farm
Table 155: Case 7 – 1MW turbines, 70MW wind farm
Table 156: Case 8 – 3MW turbines, 105MW wind farm
Table 157: Case 8 – 2MW turbines, 70MW wind farm
Table 158: Case 8 – 1MW turbines, 35MW wind farm