Overview Selected Findings Contents Figures Methodology  

List of Figures

Figure 1 Offshore Wind Turbine Component-Wise Failure Rates (Faulstich et al. 2011)
Figure 2 Bathtub Curve Reliability Distribution
Figure 3 Offshore Wind Turbine Failure Severity Landscape (WEU Survey 2011)
Figure 4 Offshore Timely Failure Rates (van de Pieterman et al. n.d.)
Figure 5 Wind Park Configuration (van de Pieterman et al. n.d.)
Figure 6 Damage Accumulation (van de Pieterman et al. n.d.)
Figure 7 Structural Failure and Material Damage Modes (McGugan et al. 2008)
Figure 8 LM Wind Power Blade Condition Monitoring System (Korsgaard 2004)
Figure 9 Offshore Wind Turbine Rotor Blade Bathtub Curve (Cavaco C. 2011)
Figure 10 Tower Damage Factors Breakdown (Mühlberg 2010)
Figure 11 Tower Coating Failure (Guy 2010)
Figure 12 Coating Repair Campaign (Guy 2010)
Figure 13 Offshore Wind Turbine Technological Foundation Landscape (Wybren 2011)
Figure 14 Transition Piece Grouting Improvement (DNV 2011b)
Figure 15 Corrosion in Offshore Wind Energy (van der Mijle Meijer 2009)
Figure 16 4MW PMSG Source (The Switch 2011)
Figure 17 Vibratory Sensor (Verbruggen 2010)
Figure 18 RMS Vibratory Response of a Bearing Pre and Post Replacement (Verbruggen 2010)
Figure 19 Middelgrunden Turbine Transformer Impact on Downtime and Production (J. Larsen et al. 2009)
Figure 20 Turbine Transformer Retrofit Campaign Cost Breakdown (J. Larsen et al. 2009)
Figure 21 Middelgrunden Transformer Replacement (J. Larsen et al. 2009)
Figure 22 Power Collection Grid Topology Outage Duration Comparison (Sannino B. K., 2007)
Figure 23 Conductor Cost Breakdown (GMS 2011)
Figure 24 Cable Fault Landscape (from 1959 to 2006)
Figure 25 Lillgrund String Connections and Power Collector System (Vattenfall 2011)
Figure 26 Lillgrund Offshore Substation (Siemens 2011)
Figure 27 Loss of Production Evolution as a Function of Distance to Port (Cavaco C. 2011)
Figure 28 Planned and Unplanned Maintenance Patterns (Cavaco C. 2011)
Figure 29 Annual In-Situ Interventions (WEU Survey 2011)
Figure 30 SCADA and CMS Alarm Resulting in Turbine Shutdown (WEU Survey 2011)
Figure 31 Analytical 5MW Wind Turbine Power Curve (Wind Energy Update 2011)
Figure 32 Condition-Based Monitoring Repair Strategy Example (Verbruggen 2010)
Figure 33 Gearbox Condition Monitoring
Figure 34 Failure Rate of Sensors Compared to other Turbine Components
Figure 35 Maintenance Strategy Allotted Budget Breakdown (WEU Survey 2011)
Figure 36 Corrective Maintenance Data from OPEX Calculations (Trollnes S. 2010)(WEU Survey 2011)
Figure 37 Risk-Based Decision Tree for O&M Planning (Jessen Nielsen & Dalsgaard Sorensen 2010)
Figure 38 Modified Bathtub Curve for Serial Failure (Olme 2009)
Figure 39 OPEX Budget Breakdown (WEU Survey 2011)
Figure 40 Performance-Based Access and Transfer Design Process (DNV 2011a)
Figure 41 Critical Resource to O&M Activity Execution (WEU Survey 2011)
Figure 42 Example Weather Window for a Monohul Crane (Costache 2010)
Figure 43 Cumulative Distribution Function of the Weather Window (Bussel & Bierbooms 2005)
Figure 44 Offshore Wind Supply Vessel (Catamaran Style) (Force 3 Offshore 2011)
Figure 45 Offshore Wind Support Crew (Force 3 Offshore 2011)
Figure 46 SWATH Boat (Maritime Journal 2010)
Figure 47 Fob Lady Access  Boat (Offshore Windservice APS 2011)
Figure 48 Ampelmann’s Active Motion Compensation Gangway System (AMPELMANN 2011)
Figure 49 Offshore Access System (Arabian Oil and Gas 2008)
Figure 50 Helicopter Access to the Nacelle Top (Wind Energy The Facts 2011)
Figure 51 BARD 1's BorWin Alpha's Transformer and Accommodation Platform (Finnern 2010)
Figure 52 Maximum Conditions for Current Installation Vessels (Skiba 2010)
Figure 53 Nexans’ Offshore Skagerrak Cable-Laying Vessel (Scottish Enterprise 2011)
Figure 54 Export Cable Carousel
Figure 55 Export Cable Carousel
Figure 56 Dual Sword Cable Trenching ROV (Blue Offshore 2011)
Figure 57 Singe Sword Cable Trenching ROV (Blue Offshore 2011)
Figure 58 Wind farm sizes and distance to shore from 1991 to 2009 (Oliver Heinecke 2010)
Figure 59 Multi-Purpose Maintenance Vessel Rendering (Scandoil 2011)
Figure 60 DNV-OS-J201 Standard (DNV 2011a)
Figure 61 Emergency Flow Chart Example (GL Garrad Hassan 2011a)
Figure 62 Serious HSE Incident Frequency (Statoil 2011)
Figure 63 Total Recordable HSE Injury Frequency (Statoil 2011)
Figure 64 Immediate Incident Cause Breakdown (GL Garrad Hassan 2011a)
Figure 65 Emergency Response Training (Nielsen 2002)
Figure 66 Emergency Rescue Training (Nielsen 2002)

List of Tables

Table 1 Severity Rating of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (Durham University, 2011)
Table 2 Failure Mobilization Requirement (Kotsonis 2010)
Table 3 Damage Classification of Offshore Rotor Blades (CP.MAX 2011)
Table 4 Rotor Blade Failure Rates (Cavaco C. 2011)
Table 5 Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Reliability (Sørensen 2007)
Table 6 Blade Aging Timeline (Cavaco C. 2011)
Table 7 Offshore Wind Tower Coating Protection Cost (Guy 2010)
Table 8 Offshore Wind Tower Coating Protection and Offshore Repair Cost Estimation
Table 9 Gearbox Failure Rates (Cavaco C. 2011)
Table 10 Generator Failure Rates (Cavaco C. 2011)
Table 11 Electrical System Failure Rates (Cavaco C. 2011)
Table 12 Control System Failure Rates (Cavaco C. 2011)
Table 13 Offshore Wind Turbine Gearbox and Generator Details
Table 14 Turbine Transformer Failure Rate and MTTR (Holmstrom & Negra 2007)
Table 15 Conductor Failure Rate (Sannino B. K., 2007)
Table 16 Seasonal Mean Time to Repair (Sannino B. K., 2007)
Table 17 Switchgear Failure Rate (Sannino & Breder, 2006)
Table 18 O&M Element Cost Estimate (Cavaco C. 2011)
Table 19 Availability Category (GL Garrad Hassan 2011b)
Table 20 Component-Based Monitoring Examples
Table 21 UK Offshore Round I Economics (10% Discount Rate)
Table 22 Access System Wave Height and Wind Speed Acceptance (Bussel & Bierbooms 2005)(Kotsonis 2010)
Table 23 Maintenance Actions for an Offshore Wind Farm and Their Occurrence (Tveiten 2011)
Table 24 Jack-Up Vessel Market Potential (Nerland 2010)
Table 25 Vessels Used in Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Europe (Kaiser & Snyder 2010)
Table 26 Specification for Newly Built Vessels (Kaiser & Snyder 2010)
Table 27 OPEX Generic Project Cost Breakdown (Scottish Enterprise 2011)
Table 28 Hazards for O&M Work in Offshore Wind Farms (Tveiten 2011)
Table 29 Training Requirements at Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Vattenfall 2011)
 
Selected Findings
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